Preface
Throughout the ages, humans have sought to make life easier through innovation and invention. At the beginning of civilization, hand tools were used exclusively. These hand tools were comprised of one or more of the six simple machines: lever, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and inclined plane. These machines can be divided into two categories. The lever, wheel and axle, and pulley operate on the principle of the lever. The other three operate on the principle of the inclined plane. Modern machines that are run by electricity have many of their moving parts based on these simple machines.

The law of conservation of energy tells us that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. There are two types of energy. Potential energy is stored energy that is ready for use at any time given the proper conditions. Kinetic energy involves the release of potential energy and is moving.

This lesson will provide students with an understanding of machines and how they are used to create motion. This understanding will prepare students to analyze and improve the mechanisms society uses today.

Concepts
1. There are six simple machines: the lever, pulley, wheel and axle, inclined plane, wedge, and screw.
2. Simple machines can make work easier by increasing mechanical advantage.
3. Mechanical advantage is the ratio of the force produced by a machine to the force applied to the machine.
4. Compound machines are made from a combination of several simple machines.
5. Energy cannot be created or destroyed but may be transferred into different types of energy.
6. Humans use their energy, along with simple machines, to do work by changing the state of energy of an object from potential to kinetic.
7. Work is equal to Force x Distance.
8. Prototyping is an important step in the design process and provides the designer with a scaled working model that can be used for testing.
Performance Objectives
It is expected that students will:
· Correctly identify the six simple machines and explain their applications.
· Distinguish between the three classes of levers.
· Identify a machine as something that helps use energy more efficiently.
· Determine mechanical advantage from assembled simple machines.
· Be able to compare and contrast kinetic and potential energy.
· Predict the relative kinetic energy based on the mass and speed of the object.
· Recognize and follow safety rules for using lab tools and machines.
· Build, test, and evaluate a model of a design problem.
· Analyze a product through testing methods and make modifications to the product.

Assessment
Application
· Students will design and fabricate a unique product using the design process and available resources.
· Students will use data collected from class experimentation to calculate acceleration, force, and velocity.
Perspective
· Engineering notebooks will be used to keep record of students’ achievements on assigned activities and projects.

Essential Questions
1. What is the purpose of using a simple or compound machine?
2. What is the difference between a simple and compound machine?
3. If energy cannot be created or destroyed, why do we need to be concerned about our energy sources?
4. What is the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy?
5. How do subsystems interact to create a system?
6. Why is the design process used when creating new products?

Day-by-Day Plans
Time: 29 days
Day 1:
· The teacher will present Concepts, Key Terms, and Essential Questions in order to provide a lesson overview.
· The teacher will introduce the six simple machines by asking students what they already know about them. Can students list the simple machines; do they know examples and the purpose that they serve?
· The teacher will present Simple and Compound Machines.ppt.
· Students will take notes in the appropriate section of their engineering notebook.
Day 2:
· The teacher will show and then discuss the DVD Physical Science in Action Simple Machines.
· Students will complete Activity 5.3.1 Simple Machines Video handout.
· The teacher will introduce Activity 5.3.2 Simple Machines Scavenger Hunt.
· Students will start Activity 5.3.2 Simple Machines Scavenger Hunt. The activity will be due at the beginning of the next class.
Days 3-4:
· The teacher will set up Activity 5.3.3 Simple Machines Exploration.
· The teacher will explain mechanical advantage and use the website **http://www.cosi.org/files/Flash/simpMach/sm1.swf** to demonstrate mechanical advantage of a block and tackle.
· The teacher will divide students into six equal teams to complete the Exploration activity. The teacher will keep time and rotate groups to a new station approximately every 10 minutes.
· Students will rotate through each simple machine station to complete the assigned tasks and calculations in Activity 5.3.3 Simple Machines Exploration.
· The teacher will monitor student progress.
· If time, students will use the Internet to complete additional simple machines activities. See Lesson 5.3 Teacher Notes for example web addresses.
Day 5:
· The teacher will review answers to Activity 5.3.3 Simple Machines Exploration with students.
· The teacher will introduce the concept of energy, energy conservation, and potential vs. kinetic energy using the Energy and Energy Conservation.ppt.
· Students will take notes in the appropriate section of their GTT notebook.
Days 6 - 8:
· The teacher will demonstrate the Law of Conservation of Energy and discuss kinetic and potential energy using a pendulum. See the [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/L5_3Teacher Notes.htm|Lesson 5.3 Teacher Notes]] for information.
· The teacher will set up and introduce [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A5_3_4Energy.htm|Activity 5.3.4 Energy Lab]].
· Students will complete Activity 5.3.4 Energy Lab and submit for grading.
· The teacher will monitor student progress.
Days 9 - 12:
· The teacher will introduce [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5.3.5aRollerCoasterDesignBrief.htm|Project 5.3.5a Roller Coaster Design Brief]] and explain that students will need to complete some experiments in order to complete the roller coaster challenge.
· The teacher will set up and introduce [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5_3_5RollerCoasterMania.htm|Project 5.3.5 Roller Coaster Mania]].
· Students will complete Project 5.3.5 Roller Coaster Mania.
· The teacher will monitor student progress and check for understanding and proper calculations.
· Students will use their GTT notebooks to keep notes on their designs, trials, and calculations.
Days 13 - 14:
· The teacher will review Project 5.3.5a Roller Coaster Design Brief.
· The teacher will explain how the project will be evaluated.
· Students will have two days to review their data, design, and build their solution to the roller coaster challenge.
· The teacher will monitor progress and encourage participation.
Day 15:
· Students will set up their roller coaster for testing.
· Students will videotape their solution to the problem.
· The teacher will evaluate models and other deliverables for Project 5.3.5a Roller Coaster Design Brief.
Day 16:
· The teacher will introduce [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A5_3_6SystemsSubsystems.htm|Activity 5.3.6 Systems and Subsystems]] and lead a discussion in systems thinking.
· The teacher may choose to use the [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/PowerPoints/TechnologicalSystems.ppt|Technological Systems.ppt]] presentation. This is the same presentation shown in the Automation and Robotics unit, so your students may have already viewed it.
· Optional: If students have not completed [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A2.3.1aBeefUpTechnologicalResources.htm|Activity 2.3.1a “Beef” Up Your Technological Resources Understanding]] the teacher may assign this now.
· Students will complete Activity 5.3.6 Systems and Subsystems.
· Optional: The teacher may wish to assign [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/L5_3KeyTermCrossword.htm|Key Terms 5.3 Crossword Puzzle]] after all key terms have been introduced.
Day 17:
· The teacher will demonstrate and discuss work areas, power and hand tools that will be utilized during Project 5.3.7 Product Creation to make students aware of safety guidelines concerning the required equipment.
· The teacher will follow individual state requirements while instructing students in the appropriate safety rules.
· The teacher will administer any tests or exams required for students to use equipment and keep them on file if required by individual state laws.
· If using Project 5.3.7c Amusement Park Ride make sure Inventor files of fischertechnik® pieces have been downloaded to student computers. These files can be found by going to **www.pltw.org** then log in to the Virtual Academy. Under General Resources chose Resources for Engineering Courses. In the Autodesk Inventor section there is a 52 MB file that includes fischertechnik® parts and assemblies.
· Students will take notes in their GTT notebooks.
· Students will successfully complete required safety exams in order to use shop equipment.
Day 18:
· The teacher will choose which Product Creation Project(s) will be completed. See Lesson 5.3 Teacher Notes for explanation of the options available.
· The teacher will introduce [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5.3.7 Product Creation.htm|Project 5.3.7 Product Creation]] and explain the expectations for that project.
· Students will keep daily entries in the engineering notebook section of their GTT notebook.
· The teacher will read and comment on their entries at least twice during the project.
Days 19-28:
· Students will complete Project 5.3.7 Product Creation while working on the assigned Project options:
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5.3.7aRubeGoldberg.htm|5.3.7a Rube Goldberg]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5.3.7bDragsterDesignFabrication.htm|5.3.7b Dragster Design and Fabrication]]
Inventor Files: [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/axle.ipt|Axle]], [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/Front Wheel for Air Racer[1].0001.ipt|Front Wheel]], [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/Back Wheel for Air Racer[1].0001.ipt|Rear Wheel]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5_3_7cAmusementParkRide.htm|5.3.7c Amusement Park Ride]]
· The teacher will review with the students the grading rubric appropriate for each project.
· Students will use appropriate engineering notebook template for daily entries.
· The teacher will provide lessons throughout the project that are necessary for student success.
· The teacher will show appropriate presentations for projects being completed as listed in the Instructional Resources.
· See Lesson 5.3 Teacher Notes for directions to each specific project.
Day 29:
· Students will demonstrate their product creation either through running the Rube Goldberg energy transfer device, racing their dragster vehicles, or demonstrating their amusement park ride to the class.
· The teacher will evaluate the students’ product using the appropriate grading rubric.
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5.3.7aRubeGoldbergGradingRubric.htm|5.3.7a Rube Goldberg Grading Rubric]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5_3_7bDragsterDesignFabricationGradingRubric.htm|5.3.7b Dragster Design and Fabrication Grading Rubric]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5_3_7cAmusementParkRideGradingRubric.htm|5.3.7c Amusement Park Ride Grading Rubric]]
· Students will review activities completed in this lesson and enter their best works in their GTT portfolio. Portfolios should be maintained as students progress through the other GTT units.
· The teacher will evaluate student notebooks using the [[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A1_1_1NotebookGradingRubric.htm|GTT Notebook Grading Rubric.]]

Instructional Resources
Presentations
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/PowerPoints/Simple and Compound Machines.ppt|Simple and Compound Machines]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/PowerPoints/Energy and Energy Conservation.ppt|Energy and Energy Conservation]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/PowerPoints/TechnologicalSystems.ppt|Technological Systems]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/PowerPoints/Rube Goldberg.ppt|Rube Goldberg]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/Rube Goldberg Activity.ppt|Rube Goldberg Activity]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/Dragster Activity.ppt|Dragster Activity]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/Forces.ppt|Forces]]
Word Documents
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A5_3_1SimpleMachinesVideo.doc|Activity 5.3.1 Simple Machines Video]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A5_3_2SimpleMachinesScavengerHunt.doc|Activity 5.3.2 Simple Machines Scavenger Hunt]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A5_3_3SimpleMachinesExploration.doc|Activity 5.3.3 Simple Machines Exploration]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A5_3_4Energy.doc|Activity 5.3.4 Energy]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5_3_5RollerCoasterMania.doc|Project 5.3.5 Roller Coaster Mania ]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5.3.5aRollerCoasterDesignBrief.doc|Project 5.3.5a Roller Coaster Challenge Design Brief]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A2.3.1aBeefUpTechnologicalResources.doc|Activity 2.3.1a “Beef” Up Your Technological Resources Understanding]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A5_3_6SystemsSubsystems.doc|Activity 5.3.6 Systems and Subsystems]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5.3.7 Product Creation.doc|Project 5.3.7 Product Creation]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5.3.7aRubeGoldberg.doc|Project 5.3.7a Rube Goldberg]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5.3.7bDragsterDesignFabrication.doc|Project 5.3.7b Dragster Design and Fabrication]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5_3_7cAmusementParkRide.doc|Project 5.3.7c Amusement Park Ride]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/L5_3KeyTermCrossword.doc|Lesson 5.3 Key Terms Crossword]]
Answer Keys and Rubrics
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5.3.7aRubeGoldbergGradingRubric.doc|Project 5.3.7a Rube Goldberg Grading Rubric]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5_3_7bDragsterDesignFabricationGradingRubric.doc|Project 5.3.7b Dragster Design and Fabrication Grading Rubric]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/P5_3_7cAmusementParkRideGradingRubric.doc|Project 5.3.7c Amusement Park Ride Grading Rubric]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/A1_1_1NotebookGradingRubric.doc|GTT Notebook Grading Rubric]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/L5_3CrosswordAnswer Key.doc|Lesson 5.3 Key Terms Crossword Answer Key]]
Teacher Guidelines
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/L5_3Applied_Physics.doc|Lesson 5.3 Applied Physics]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/L5_3Teacher Notes.doc|Lesson 5.3 Teacher Notes]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/Design Brief Template.doc|Design Brief Template]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/Decision_Matrix_Template.doc|Decision Matrix Template]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/Isometric_Graph_PaperTemplate.doc|Isometric Graph Paper Template]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/My Design Process SolutionTemplate.doc|My Design Process Solution Template]]
Inventor Files
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/axle.ipt|Axle]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/Front Wheel for Air Racer[1].0001.ipt|Front Wheel Dragster]]
[[mk:@MSITStore:C:\Users\MDWheeler\Desktop\GTT 2010\GTT_Advanced_2010\GTT_Advanced_2010.chm::/GTT Science of Technology/GTT 5.3/Back Wheel for Air Racer[1].0001.ipt|Rear Wheel Dragster]]